IMPLY: A program for the construction of deduced intervals on secondary contrasts from confidence intervals on primary contrasts - Kevin D. Bird and Emily M. Bird

IMPLY produces deduced intervals (DIs) on any number of secondary contrasts from a set of confidence intervals (CIs) on (J - 1) linearly independent primary contrasts on J means (Bird, 2011). IMPLY also provides the coefficient vectors used to express the secondary contrasts as linear combinations of the primary contrasts.

Before running IMPLY, you will need to have obtained the lower and upper CI limits for each primary contrast from a statistical package or a program such as PSY. Click here to download PSY. IMPLY is written in the freely available programming language R, which you will need to have installed on your computer. Click here to download R.

Click to download two files: Imply_code.txt containing the IMPLY code, and Imply_instructions.pdf which you should read before running the program.


Bird, K.D. (2011). Deduced inference in the analysis of experimental data. Psychological Methods, 16, 432-443.

Please send feedback to Kevin Bird.

In Profile

Ethics and Sona Resources

Please follow the links below for more information and resources on the Research Participation program for staff and graduate students. You should save each document to your network drive (z: drive) and edit it from there to avoid losing changes.